Erhard Hugo Zander1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35

M, b. 13 January 1887, d. 11 April 1954
FatherEmil August Zander1,36,35 b. 28 Dec 1856, d. 17 May 1939
MotherAgnes Emma Welke1,3,36,35 b. 25 Apr 1859, d. 1 Aug 1889
Erhard Hugo Zander, 1906
     Erhard Hugo Zander, son of Emil August Zander and Agnes Emma Welke, was born at 5 o'clock in the morning on 13 January 1887 at Steinborn (Słupia), Schlochau (Człuchów), Marienwerder (Pomorskie), Westpreußen (German Empire).1,3,4,33,35 On 1 August 1889, Erhard Hugo Zander, only 2 years old, lost his mother, Agnes Emma Zander. His father did not remarry until 1892.37,38

Erhard went to boarding school at Preußisch Stargard, Danzig.39

As a young man, Erhard worked on the large farm of his father at Steinborn (Słupia.)2

In order to bring more people to their overseas colonies, the German government recruited young people by paying for gear and travel expenses to the colony. At the age of 21, Erhard, dissatisfied with the strict Prussian lifestyle, discussed this with his step-mother, and they decided that it would be a good opportunity to begin life in Africa as a cattle rancher. On 29 April 1908, Erhard emigrated to Swakopmund, German South West Africa via Antwerpen from Hamburg, Germany. He was a passenger on the ship Feldmarschall, a 6142-ton steamship of the German East Africa Line out of Hamburg.40,41,42

Once he arrived in German Southwest Africa, he had to familiarize himself with the local way of ranching, which was completely different to farming in West Prussia. To gain experience, he worked for a while as a manager on the Ongombo Ranch for the widow of Theodor Mayer.43

On 5 January 1911, Erhard purchased the Otjihokero Ranch from the German Colonial Society. The ranch consisted of 4203.7750 hectares. He built a dam and a house called “Red House” by the natives.11,36 On 6 May 1914,Erhard mortgaged Otjihokero for 30,000 marks at Windhoek.13

Erhard wrote his first will on 22 December 1914 on Otjihokero Ranch. Rudolf Barres of the Barreshagen Ranch was listed as an heir. He was then to pay out to Erhard's sister Gertrude 30,000 marks over a period of two years.8

During World War I, Erhard served as a volunteer in the National Guard. After he came down with malaria and was left behind by his company, he was captured by the British. After release, he returned to his ranch, only to find it had been completely plundered during his absence. Even the roof had been stolen. All that remained were the walls of the house and one damaged desk. Erhard kept the desk over all the years. At the time of this writing, it stands in one corner of the living room at Monteith Ranch with the back of the drawers repaired with thin crate lumber. He obtained financial backing from Gustav Voigts to make a new beginning.30

Erhard purchased the Omitiomere Ranch in Gobabis District circa 1919. He moved to the eastern part of the country where he built dams on several ranches, including on Otjisororindi Ranch near Steinhausen belonging to the Cramer family. There he met a young lady who would become his wife.44

He married Elisabeth Ida Ada Cramer, daughter of Ludwig Paul Cramer and Julie Mathilde Adelheid Cramer, on 8 November 1919 at Windhoek, South West Africa.36,35 He sold the Otjihokero Ranch to Nossob Ranching Company Partnership in February 1921.45

Elisabeth was pregnant with their second child when she developed pneumonia. The baby was born prematurely and lived only a few hours. She died on 19 May 1922. The following is a translated excerpt describing this tragedy on page 191-192 from a book called Mein Weg Durch Afrika by Erhard’s brother-in-law Ernst-Ludwig Cramer.

Ernst-Ludwig Cramer, Elisabeth’s brother, had visited his sister and brother-in-law before and met them in good spirit, but then he described this as follows:
Two weeks later a messenger came and handed him a letter from his brother-in-law. It read, “Please come immediately, Elisabeth is very sick”
I saddled my horse and rode off. (The distance is about 40 miles.) When I passed the Kuhlenkamp Ranch, I saw their horses grazing near the house and explained to them why I am in such a hurry. They offered to me a fresh horse with a horse cart, and told me that they will send someone with my horse once it recovers from the hard ride. I accepted the friendly offer with appreciation and took off. After another 18 miles I stopped at the ranch house of the Phillips siblings. Emma was to be married soon. On the veranda were many people, but Emma approached me by herself. I greeted her and told her that I was on my way to my sister. She did not let go of my hand and said, “I was over there myself. The last couple of days I took care of her. Your brother-in-law sent for me.” She still held my hand said: “Mr. Cramer, she passed away two days ago. Your brother-in-law buried her yesterday.”
I could not say a word.
Emma Phillips continued, “She had severe double pneumonia, the baby was born too early and died a couple of hours later. Your brother-in-law made a coffin out of galvanized sheets…. The baby is resting next to her.”
--------My sister dead! --------

“Oh, I wish I could live to be a hundred years old, or better to live forever.” That’s what she had often told me. And I always thought that Elisabeth was life itself.

One hour later I sat at the table opposite my brother-in-law, but there was no wine in crystal wine glasses like there has been before when I had come by with the message from my sister. That night we shed many tears. The next day I rode home.”

The grave can still be seen on the Peters Ranch. Erhard was widowed at the age of 35 years, and had to raise his young son Konrad alone. Erhard was deeply affected by this loss, and could not tolerate remaining in the house he had shared with Elisabeth. He sold the Omitiomere Ranch.46,47

After World War I, South West Africa was declared a League of Nations Mandate territory under the Treaty of Versailles, with the Union of South Africa responsible for the administration of South West Africa. In 1924, Erhard was automatically naturalized as a British citizen.28

Erhard purchased the Monteith Ranch in Okahandja District. The size of the ranch was 4,655 hectares, 9 acres, and 34 square meters. He bought the ranch as an “Applikasie plaas” from the government. The five corners of the property were marked with piles of rocks, and it had one bore hole with water. That was it. The first order of business was to purchase and erect a windmill and build a water tank. This first station was called Harrupara, but it was not the ideal place for a ranch house. About three miles west of Harruparra was a small dry wash. He built a small earthen wall to catch the rainwater. A short distance uphill from the new reservoir, Erhard built the so-called Hartebeest House, a makeshift dwelling, where he and son Konni lived until the construction of the main ranch house was complete. Meanwhile, Konni was cared for by a ranch hand named Kasuppi. He was Nama so Konni learned to speak the language. With the experience Erhard had gained over the years, he began to design Monteith in a systematic manner. First, he built the dam. With a steel earth scoop, he dug the earth in the valley just in front of the future house into a 200-meter-long bank. Next, he began work on the house. The building supplies were brought from Windhoek with a five-ton ox-wagon. The 95-mile trip took several days, even with an empty wagon, but it took two to three weeks to drive back to the ranch with a full load. Only the most important supplies were brought from town.

The adobe blocks were formed and fired for about two weeks on the ranch. The clay for the blocks was dug out from the bottom of the reservoir when the water level was low enough at the end of the dry season. The clay was mixed with sand and water, then the native women stamped the slurry with their feet before it was cast into blocks. The lime was excavated locally and fired. The sand for the mortar was brought to the house from the river. The house was an impressive structure. It had an upper story with a small balcony above the front veranda. This house was the first far and wide to have running water.

When everything was finally finished, there was the main house and three more buildings for storage, guest rooms, a garage, a workshop, laundry room and more. In the center between the four buildings was a 25-foot round water reservoir, and a cool house.

The free-standing cool house was interesting. Since there was no electricity, the cooling occurred by evaporation. The walls consisted of a brick wall with a horizontal spacing of about two inches between every brick, next to it a layer of chicken wire to contain three inches of charcoal, another layer of chicken wire and another perforated brick wall. The room was about 6 ft wide, 7 ft long, and 7 ft high, with a 4” thick concrete slab for a roof. The door was insulated. Above the charcoal layer was a set of pipes with 1/8” holes at about 4 inches apart. Twice a day the supply valve was opened to soak the charcoal. The evaporation of the water cooled the room to such an extent that, even during the hot summer, milk would stay fresh for 24 hours. In winter meat could keep for several weeks.15,32,48

It must have been Christmas 1930 – after the Monteith house was completed, but before Erhard had remarried in 1931 – when Erhard and friends played Skat, a German card game. They were sitting in the living room with a view on the reservoir. One of the friends said, “Erhard, I hear you are a very good sharp shooter. What about shooting a kudu down at the reservoir” – about 500 yds away! Erhard agreed, but then he added, “To make it more difficult, it shall be a kudu in full flight.” Erhard told his ten-year-old son Konni to go and get the 9.8 mm Mauser and two shells. Then Konni was told to check and let him know once the kudus are approaching the water for their evening drink. Just before sunset a herd of kudus approached slowly through the bushes toward the water, but on the other side of the lake, about 150 yards further away. Erhard took his rifle and settled down at the open living room window and everybody watched as the kudus took water. The male stood back and watched for predators while the cows were drinking. Then the cows stood back and the bull walked a couple of feet into the lake and started drinking. A shot rang through the house and a huge plume of water rose right in front of the bull. The kudu jumped up high and just started to turn around when the second bullet hit him right between the eyes. Yes, Erhard was a sharp shooter. The meat was never wasted. The ranch hands went down to the lake, removed the hide and cut up the meat in portions. Usually, the back and one hindleg went into the cool house for Erhard, but most of the meat went to the ranch hands and their families.

Erhard was quite a handyman. He built the wooden dining room set by hand. He even mastered forge welding: heating two pieces of steel until red-hot, then welding the parts together by hammering down.49 It was while Käthe was staying with Blondel that she met the widowed rancher. He married Katharina on 26 September 1931 at Windhoek, Südwest Afrika.4,35

In 1932 to 1933 there was a severe drought. Monteith Ranch had enough grass for the cattle, but the dam was dry. The neighbors on Gedult Ranch, the Breeds, had some wells with plenty of water, but no grass. The two neighbors cut a deal. They opened the border fence and the Gedult cattle got water at Monteith and Monteith cattle were able to graze at Gedult. After heavy rainstorms in 1934, this arrangement was no longer necessary. The cattle got separated and the border fence went up again.49

In 1935 Erhard was awarded the Ehrenkreuz für Frontkämpfer, known as the Hindenburg Cross, for active military service in World War I. The accompanying certificate states:
“Im Namen des Führers und Reichskanzlers dem Farmer ERHARD HUGO ZANDER ist auf Grund der Verordnung vom 13. Juli 1934 zur Erinnerung an den Weltkrieg 1914/1918 das vom Reichspräsidenten Generalfeldmarschall Von Hindenburg gestiftete EHRENKREUZ für Frontkämpfer verliehen worden.
Nr. 223/35
Windhuk den 26. September 1935
der Deutsche Konsul”.49

In 1936 Erhard and Käthe visited friends and family in Germany. As “Germans in foreign countries” they had privileged seats at summer Olympics in Berlin where they joined thousands of other visitors. Käthe had left Germany right after World War I, when the country was destroyed and in total chaos. Now, in 1936 the country was restored and organized, and they were quite impressed. In order to follow the new developments on their return home, they bought a Zenith tube radio and took it to the ranch. That, however, created some problems. There was no electric power available. Erhard parked his car next to the living room window, connected two wires to the radio and strung a single bailing wire to one of the trees in front of the house for an antenna. This was only a temporarily solution. Soon Erhard mounted a 6-volt wind charger on the roof of the garage and bought two 6-volt car batteries. One of them was hooked up to the radio, while the other one was charging. The same radio was still used in Windhoek in the early sixties.

Erhard was an avid hunter, although not for trophies, but only to provide food for the family and ranch hands. While they were in Germany in 1936, Erhard had ordered a 9.8 mm Mauser with an extended barrel, and a Sauer & Sohn over and under 6.5 mm rifle/shotgun combo. He also owned a .22 Tesching with magazine for 5 extra shells, and a small Mauser pistol. When Käthe needed a duck or two for dinner, he and Gernot went down to the lake. While he was hiding behind the earthen dam wall, Gernot hat to scare the wild ducks. As they flew away from Gernot, the ducks went over the wall straight into the shooting line over Erhard’s head. With the .22 Tesching, he would hit two of them in seconds. They would fall into the water and a hunting dog would swim out and bring them to shore. Gernot would have the honor of plucking the feathers and cleaning the ducks to prepare them for the kitchen.49

In 1938, Erhard inherited the Katemba-Autsaub Ranch from his cousin Paul Karl Eduard Wohler. Katemba is located about 300 miles north-west of Windhoek, about 15 miles west of Kamanjab, in a semi-arid area. Ranches in this area are very large to be able to support herds of cattle and sheep. The ranch covers about 25,000 acres. Instead of thorn bushes, the trees were mostly mopane. The ranch had several wells with windmills and reservoirs. The reservoirs were made of concrete, because the local herds of elephants damaged the corrugated tin basins quite often. There were not only elephants on the ranch, but also lions, ostriches, oryxes, giraffes, kudus, warthogs, leopards, and cheetahs.50

As World War II began, the South African government decided, for reasons of national security, to send most of the German men in South West Africa to detention camps in 1939 and 1940. Their first son, Gernot, was born on 4 March 1941, during the time his father was in the detention camp.28,31

In October 1939, Erhard was paroled before the Magistrate of Okahandja on the condition that he deliver all arms and ammunition to the Control Office, did not travel outside the limits of his Magisterial District, and was on good behavior.29 On 19 August 1940, the Station Commander of Hochfeld sent a confidential letter to the District Commandant in Windhoek referring to Erhard as a Nazi suspect, because Erhard was vice-chairman of the Nazi Alliance in Sandveld. It was also stated that he was making propaganda for the return of South West Africa to Germany, and for the prospective candidate, J. B. Pieterse, for the upcoming election, because he believed that if elected, Pieterse would work toward disinterment of the Germans, as well as return of Southwest Africa to Germany. Erhard was arrested in December 1940 and sent to the Andalusia Camp, now Jan Kempdorp, north of Kimberley, South Africa.29

On the form which he had filled out while he was in the detention camp on 24 May 1943, it is stated that he owned the ranches Monteith and Katemba-Autsaub, about 900 cattle, about 2300 Karakul sheep, and farm implements worth £30,000.28

As soon as his son, Konni, turned 21 years old, he was also arrested and sent to Andalusia, where he joined his father. There were approximately 2000 Germans in the camp. Later, he had a short stay at the camp Baviaanspoort, where he was to remain until June 1946. After World War II ended in 1946, the POWs were released, but had to stay in South Africa for one more year. First, he lived on the ranch of J. B. Pieterse, who had since moved to Winburg, Orange Free State. There followed several letters asking for permission to return home after his long confinement. On 17 September 1946, Erhard requested leave of the Chief Control Officer in Pretoria to return to his ranch. On 20 September 1946 he wrote the same letter to the Secretary of South West Africa. During a stay with the Vronemanns near Rustenburg, Erhard got permission to receive visitors. Käthe and her five-year-old son, Gernot, traveled by train to visit Erhard, and father and son met for the first time in their lives.27,26

On 3 October 1946, the Magistrate wrote a letter to the Secretary of South West Africa, requesting a leave for Erhard. He received permission to spend one month at his ranch Monteith in Okahandja District on 21 Oct 1946. On 22 Oct 1946, Käthe Zander wrote a letter to the Magistrate in Windhoek to ask for Erhard to be allowed to come home.25 He received permission to spend one month at his ranch Monteith in Okahandja District on 21 October 1946.51

On 25 October 1946, the Magistrate recommended to the Secretary of South West Africa that Erhard be given leave.52 On 6 November 1946, Erhard wrote a letter thanking the Secretary of South West Africa for permitting him one month leave to return to his ranch, and requested more time. At the end of the year the newly reunited family went on vacation in Swakopmund at the coast.22

He received notification that he was permitted an extension of his vacation in South West Africa, without limitation on 10 July 1947. Käthe had managed to keep the ranch and its finances in pretty good shape. It was now decided that the upper story of the ranch house needed to come down. It was impractical and it seemed that the foundation was not structurally capable of supporting the weight of the upper story. All four buildings looked rather unfinished and therefore a rough, dark gray plaster was added and the overall appearance were improved considerably. The next large project was the re-enforcement of the earthen dam wall. Erhard devised a system to use a winch driven by a diesel engine to scoop up the dirt from the reservoir bed and haul it up onto the wall.21

The Deputy Chief Control Officer requested that Erhard, along with other German farmers in the District of Okahandja, be appended to the list of Enemy Aliens. He also requested that these persons be issued Certificates of Exemption from Internment. on 11 November 1947.20 On 17 December 1947, Erhard received a Certificate of Exemption from Internment, because he was recommended for deportation.19 He received permission to visit his second son, Gernot, who was attending boarding school in Windhoek, and to supervise farming operations between 28 April 1948 and 28 July 1948. He requested a further six months of leave on 22 April 1948. During this time, two important events occurred. First, his third son was born, and second, there was a change of government in South Africa. The National Party was sympathetic to the Germans, and the recommendation to deport Germans was countermanded.17,18

After he received notification that the restrictions imposed on him, in terms of the National Emergency Regulations, had been withdrawn, Erhard was naturalized on 28 June 1949 as South African.3,16

Erhard sold Katemba-Autsaub Ranch for £ 5000 to his son, Konrad, on 4 October 1949. Konrad was to pay off the mortgage in a period of ten years at the rate of £ 500 a year, interest free, beginning in 1950. He also was transferred ownership of all inventory on the ranch, as well as all assets at the Standard Bank of Outjo.10,53

In his will, written on 4 February 1950 at Monteith Ranch, his wife, Käthe, was listed as the sole heir. She was also named executor of the will and guardian of the children.9

One year at Christmas time, son Konni and family came to visit. Konni’s wife Ilse gave her husband a Luger pistol. Erhard was very excited and although he was very ill with cancer, he suggested that father and son should drive out into the bush to test the weapon. They stopped at a termite mound, placed an empty jam can half way up the mound, stepped back 75 feet, ready to shoot. Konni gave the Luger to his dad to shoot, but he refused to try it first, since it was Konni’s Christmas gift. Konni aimed and shot three rounds – and missed. Erhard grabbed the gun, but he had a very unsteady hand. The hand went up and down several times, then he shot, and ping, off went the can. Konni was just flabbergasted and said, “You are shaking like a leaf in the wind, and yet you hit the target!” The reply was, “It doesn’t matter how much you shake. It’s when you pull the trigger that counts.”

With the stomach cancer progressing, Erhard wad admitted to the hospital in Windhoek several times. On one occasion the Lutheran Provost, named Höflich, met Käthe in the hallway of the hospital and told her he would like to visit Erhard. She mentioned to him that Erhard was not a religious person, but nonetheless it would be fine. Käthe went shopping and came back more than an hour later. When she entered Erhard’s hospital room, the Provost was still there, and on the white hospital sheet lay all the loose parts of the disassembled Mauser pistol, every piece being discussed in detail about function and wear and tear. Käthe left – speechless. A) He had a handgun in the hospital, and B) the Provost was discussing hand guns. Actually, since the Provost was interned in Andalusia as well, Erhard and “Propst Höflich” had known each other for several years.

Unfortunately, the stomach cancer was incurable and once any medical treatment was in vain, Erhard decided to live his last days on the ranch. Käthe got special permission to give Erhard morphine injections.49

On 11 April 1954, Erhard died on Monteith Ranch of stomach cancer at age 67 years, 2 months and 29 days.33,34,35 He was buried in the family graveyard on Monteith. Many neighbors came to pay their respect. Gernot, who was at the funeral told this writer that the preacher from Okahandja did not make it for the ceremony and they all waited and waited and yet he did not come. Then a good friend of the family, Mr. Marggraff, gave the eulogy and another neighbor added some kind words. Then finally the preacher came and he apologized that he was late. The Swakopmund River near Okahandja was running, and he needed help getting his car through the water, which took so long. Gernot remembers that this was one of the longest funerals he ever witnessed.39

Family 1: Elisabeth Ida Ada Cramer b. 13 Jul 1896, d. 19 May 1922

Family 2: Katharina Elisabeth Forster b. 21 Mar 1909, d. 19 Jun 1985


  1. [S17] Erhard Hugo Zander, Geburtsurkunde Nr. 2 (14 Jan 1887).
  2. [S465] Link to Your Roots,
  3. [S5] Einbürgerung, No. 32664, (28 June 1949) im privaten Besitz von Karen Zander.
  4. [S18] Heiratsurkunde von Erhard Zander und Katharina Forster: No. 27 of 1931 - Erhard Hugo Zander und Katharina Elisabeth Forster - 26. Sep. 1931.
  5. [S802] The Ship's List, rechnerabhängig
  6. [S488] Erhard Hugo Zander, Antwerpen Passenger Manifest, 29 Apr 1908; Roll #VIII A1.
  7. [S811] Gernot Zander, Geburtsurkunde No. A 26225, Magistrate, Swakopmund, Union of South Africa (14 March 1941).
  8. [S851] Testament von Erhard Zander.
  9. [S821] Testament von Erhard Zander.
  10. [S878] Letter of Conveyance, 4 October 1949.
  11. [S879] Brief, Stritter and Partners Engling an Renate Zander, 18 November1985.
  12. [S880] List of deeds of transfer, Katemba-Autsaub No. 210 im privaten Besitz Karen Zander, Nr. 264 und 68.
  13. [S882] Brief, Landwirtschaftsbank für Deutsch-Südwestafrika an Erhard Zander, 16 November 1914.
  14. [S886] Erbschaftsmasse Abrechnung No. 94/1954.
  15. [S887] Erbschaftsmasse Abrechnung No. 94/1954.
  16. [S894] Brief, Deputy Chief Control Officer an Erhard Zander.
  17. [S895] Brief, Deputy Chief Control Officer an Erhard Zander, 26 April 1948.
  18. [S897] Brief, Erhard Zander an Secretary of Southwest Africa, 22 April 1948.
  19. [S903] Brief, Deputy Chief Control Officer an Erhard Zander, 17 December 1947.
  20. [S904] Brief, Deputy Chief Control Officer, 11 November 1947.
  21. [S905] Brief, Deputy Chief Control Officer an Erhard Zander, 10 Juli 1947.
  22. [S907] Brief, Erhard Zander an Secretary of Southwest Africa, 6 November 1946.
  23. [S909] Brief , Chief Control Officer an Erhard Zander, 21 Oktober 1946.
  24. [S912] Brief, Käthe Zander an Windhoek, Southwest Africa Magistrate, 22 Oktober1946.
  25. [S917] Brief, Magistrate an Secretary of Southwest Africa, 3 Oktober 1946.
  26. [S919] Brief , Erhard Zander an Secretary of Southwest Africa, 20 September 1946.
  27. [S920] Brief, Erhard Zander an Chief Control Officer, 17 September 1946.
  28. [S921] Erhard Zander, "Internees in Union Internment Camps."
  29. [S922] Brief, Station Commander an Police District No. 51, Windhoek, Southwest Africa District Commandant, 19 August 1940.
  30. [S930] Konrad Zander, Ein südwester Farmer, Jäger und Maler, Seiten 7-8.
  31. [S928] Rolf Kock, Erinnerungen an die Internierungszeit.
  32. [S1156] Koloniales Hand- und Adreßbuch 1926-1927, Seite 336.
  33. [S2889] Erhard Hugo Zander, Todesurkunde, Erhard Hugo Zander - 11 April 1954.
  34. [S3841] South Africa, Cape Province, Probate Records of the Master of the High Court, 1834-1989 "Registration date: 9. 6. 54
    Death date: 11. 4. 54
    Surname: Zander
    Christian name: Erhard Hugo
    Surviving spouse: Kathrina Elizabeth
    No. of will: --
    No. of bond: --
    Executor appointed: --
    A/c Filed: 28. 1. 55.
  35. [S4323] South Africa, Western Cape, Deceased Estate Files, 1951-1958 Nr. 2769/54 - Erhard Hugo Zander.
  36. [S2888] Heiratsurkunde von Erhard Hugo Zander und Elisabeth Ida Ada Cramer: Erhard Hugo Zander und Elisabeth Ida Ada Cramer - 8 November 1919.
  37. [S150] Dr. jur. Bernhard Koerner, Deutsches Geschlechterbuch, Seite 490.
  38. [S21] "Zander Familie".
  39. [S1004] Befragung, Jürgen Zander, 22 September 2007.
  40. [S488] Erhard Hugo Zander, Antwerpen Passenger Manifest, 29 Apr 1908; Roll #VIII A1, Die Reise Nr. war A1908.0143.
  41. [S465] Link to Your Roots,, Passagier Number 00.0052.
  42. [S802] The Ship's List, rechnerabhängig, Die Feldmarschall wurde 1903 gebaut. In 1916, wurde das Schiff bei Dar-es-Salaam von den Briten gefangen und danach von der Union-Castle Mail SS Company betrieben. Sie wurde Field Marshal umbenannt. In 1922, war sie an China verkauft und Ling Ham umbenannt.
  43. [S1995] Telefon Interview, Renate (Altmann) Zander, 5 Jun 2012.
  44. [S930] Konrad Zander, Ein südwester Farmer, Jäger und Maler, Seite 8.
  45. [S879] Brief, Stritter and Partners Engling an Renate Zander, 18 November1985, Tenure No. 771/21.
  46. [S3215] Elisabeth Cramer, Todesurkunde, Image 1814 - Elisabeth Ida Ada Cramer (Zander) - 19. Mai 1922.
  47. [S2423] Ernst-Ludwig Cramer, Mein Weg durch Afrika, Seite 191.
  48. [S1158] Kolonial-Wirtschaftlichen Komitee (Hrsg.), Kolonial-Handels-Adreßbuch : Mandatsgebiete in Afrika 1936, Seite 269.
  49. [S980] Personal knowledge.
  50. [S880] List of deeds of transfer, Katemba-Autsaub No. 210 im privaten Besitz Karen Zander, no. 264.
  51. [S954] Brief, Ferdinand Lutz an Oberstudiendirektor, 15 Februar 1940.
  52. [S910] Letter, Magistrate to Secretary of Southwest Africa, 25 October 1946.
  53. [S880] List of deeds of transfer, Katemba-Autsaub No. 210 im privaten Besitz Karen Zander, no. 68.
  54. [S4328] Taufschein, Gernot Zander, 21 September 1947.
Last Edited=14 Nov 2022